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Trade Routes

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Ibn Madjid. 1470. First navigational poem. (As- Sufaliyya)(1470) (the poem of Sofala).

Masao, F.T.& Mutoro, H.W. 1988. ‘The East African coast and the Comoro Islands’. Chapter 21 in Unesco General History of Africa III: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century, ed. M. Elfasi. Berkeley, CA: Heinemann & UNESCO.

Matveiev, V.V. 1984. ‘The development of Swahili civilization.’ Chapter 18 in Unesco General History of Africa IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century, ed. D.T.Niane. Berkeley, CA: Heinemann & UNESCO.

Niane, D.T. 1984. ‘Relationships and exchanges among the different regions.’ Chapter 25 in Unesco General History of Africa IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century, ed. D.T.Niane. Berkeley, CA: Heinemann & UNESCO.

Pearson, M.N. 1998. Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili Coast, India and Portugal in the Early Modern Era. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Chapters 1–3. Chapter 3 discusses the relationship between the East African port cities and the interior.

Sheriff, Abdul. 2010. Dhow Cultures of the Indian Ocean: Cosmopolitanism, Commerce and Islam. London: C. Hurst & Co. Especially Chapters 3, 10.

Villiers, Alan. 1969 (1940). ‘Delta of misery’. Chapter 12 in Sons of Sinbad. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
A description of the labour of collecting mangrove poles at the Rufiji River mouth, north of Sofala for transport to Arabia. Other chapters give further descriptions of trade involving Arabian dhows travelling down the east coast of Africa.

Wilkinson, J.C. (1981) ‘Oman and East Africa: New Light on Early Kilwan History from the Omani Sources’. International Journal of African Historical Studies 14(2): 272–305. http://www.jstor.org/stable/218046