* Note: The resources on Baghdad collected in the RAA Project so far tend to focus on musical activities there. The broader social and economic characteristics of Baghdadi society can be traced in the discussions of these music-centred settings, but more research is needed to collect materials that give a fuller picture of Baghdad at the time when the man from Mapungubwe would have arrived there.

Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1991. Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350. New York : Oxford University Press.

Al–Tabari, Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Jarir. 1992. The History Of Al- Tabari. Volume XXXVI. The Revolt of the Zanj (A.D. 869–879/A.H. 255–265), translated and annotated by David Waines. New York: State University of New York Press.

Caswell, Fuad Matthew. 2011. The Slave Girls of Baghdad: The Qiyan in the Early Abbasid Era. London: I.B. Tauris.

Fabrizi, Mariabruna. 2015. The Round City of Baghdad. Online Maps, images and description of 10th-century Baghdad.

Farmer, Henry George. 1929. A History of Arabian Music to the XIIIth Century. London: Luzac. The first chapters give an overview of Baghdad’s history more generally.

Kennedy, Hugh. 2004. The Court of the Caliphs : The Rise and Fall of Islam’s Greatest Dynasty. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Le Strange, Guy. 1983. Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate: From Contemporary Arabic and Persian Sources. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press.

Mirelman, Sam. 2009. ‘New developments in the social history of music and musicians in ancient Iraq, Syria, and Turkey’. Yearbook for Traditional Music 41: 12–22.

An 1883 illustration of early BaghdadSegal, Ronald. 2003. Islam’s Black Slaves : A History of Africa’s Other Black Diaspora. London: Atlantic Books.

Talhami, Ghada Hashem. 1977. ‘The Zanj Rebellion Reconsidered’. International Journal of African Historical Studies 10(3): 443–461.

Talib, Y. 1988. ‘The African diaspora in Asia’. Chapter 26 in Unesco General History of Africa III: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century, ed. M. Elfasi. Berkeley, CA: Heinemann & UNESCO.